By Evgeny Milyutin and Lisa Meyer
Put yourself in a students’ shoes for a minute. Imagine that throughout your whole life, the only language you’ve heard or spoken is Spanish. You’re from a rural town in Honduras, the only home you know, and then at age six your family moved to the USA. Once there, you were signed up for 1s t grade at the local elementary school, and you were thrown right into an English-speaking classroom. While at school, you received some English language support, but what you heard all day long at school is English.
Take another look, you used to love math class in Honduras; yet, in your American classroom you feel bored, exhausted and frustrated. In fact, instead of feeling smart and capable, you’re actually starting to believe you’ll never be a good student in your American math classroom.
This is the scenario that many immigrant students face upon arriving in the United States. Even students who were born in the USA may grow up with a different home language. School might be the first place they hear English for prolonged periods of time. Today, 1 in 10 students in public schools
are ELLs (English Language Learners).Implications for the Mathematics Classroom
Federal law requires that school districts ensure that ELLs can “participate meaningfully in schools’ educational program,” and that schools strive to bridge language barriers. Math is challenging subjects itself, adding language barriers to it is making success in it unreachable . More recently, legislation has gone as far to require that districts use strategies and programs to help ELLs that are backed by scientific evidence. (1
While this legislation is important and it sounds agreeable, supporting ELLs presents a challenge for teachers. Teachers may not speak the native language of the child or have the resources and tools to properly address ELL needs. Training and learning how to include these students takes time and effort, which is hard in schools where a myriad of other needs must be met. Many schools offer special ELL pull-out classes and groups to support children as they learn English, but, in the main classroom students continue to struggle with English. This barrier may cost students academically as they fail to grasp concepts in math, science and, of course, language arts.
I interviewed Lisa Meyer, Director of Programming for Dual Language Education of New Mexico, on the best practical strategies for supporting English language learners in bilingual programs. Designing the right program to support a district/ school’s specific ELL population is a challenging and important task. That support depends on many factors, such as availability of resources, percentage of ELLs, and language(s) represented. With that in mind, there are at least three important DON’Ts when it comes to teaching math to ELLs in a bilingual program:
1. DON’T constantly translate while teaching. It is important that the student learning is focused on the math, not on its translation in different languages.
2. DON’T re-teach the same content in one language, and then again in the second language. Instead, introduce the concept in one language and then plan how to transfer the language and apply the learning in the other language.
3. DON’T approach it as the responsibility of one teacher. Instead a bilingual program should be carefully planned so it is coherent across the grade levels and all the participating educators should align their efforts.
Now consider some of the DOs - what can we do to reach ELL students in mathematics classrooms? How might these suggestions benefit all learners?
1. DO front-load mathematics vocabulary . Introduce vocabulary before lessons, so that ELLs have access to and can build understand of the math language. Be aware of multiple meaning words that cause confusion for language learners: “Draw a table. Make up a word problem. Show the translation of the figure”.
2. DO provide multiple representations of mathematics concepts . Support ELL students by modeling, creating visuals, describing with words, symbols, or numbers .Chart key vocabulary and examples with students. Leave these anchor-charts up so you and the students can refer back to them.
3. DO encourage ELL students to represent their understanding with multiple representations . A Frayer Model or a Four Square Model for solving word problems are examples of such support tools .
4. DO expect all students to participate in math . Provide supports such as sentence stems, think-pair-shares, intentional groupings for cooperative learning activities, and guided math groups so ELLs can be successful.
5. DO build on language and concepts that students already have . Observe students to see what they have learned in their language (understanding of place value, strategies for multiplying/dividing, or the names of geometric figures).
Your turn now -- what are your DOs and DON’Ts when it comes to teaching math to ELLs? The comment box below is yours!